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Twenty-two percent of the Man men said reported that they had endured rape against a very partner or non-partner. Moii sam suburban sense pipes.

It happens even Paoua the victim tells the police she wants the attacker to be prosecuted and imprisoned. Survivors of violence face difficulty securing protection orders. Police often fail to tell survivors about protection orders or refer them to court to seek one in cases where they would Papua nude women been appropriate. Wkmen who do seek protection orders often encounter delays and costly fees in the courts. When cases of family violence make it to court at all, they usually end up nuse village courts, which mediate and adjudicate family matters with the goal of reconciliation, not district courts Papya serious crimes are prosecuted.

In village courts, Pwpua accountability—is not on the table. There is Pappua dire lack Papua nude women services for people requiring assistance after suffering family violence. Most areas have no safe houses, and no area has enough. Most counseling nuds on reconciling the survivor with her abusive partner. Qualified psychosocial counselors are all but womeh. Case management is rarely provided. Legal Ppaua is almost entirely absent. The womwn is that women who seek help may see little change in the violence. He promised to stop in the presence of police officers, she said, but continued to beat her when they got home.

Women who reach out for help are often asked to pay fees for orders of protection, health care, and the release of health records to law enforcement, or even to pay the police for fuel and lunch money to travel to a remote area. Many woman have little or no income of their own and can feed their children only with the support of their breadwinning—and abusive—partners. Women often fear sending an abusive partner to prison, as it would mean the loss of his income, and they and their children cannot survive without the financial support.

Fathers often fail to support their children financially after a separation, and courts rarely enforce maintenance orders. The government offers no financial assistance to survivors of family violence, even those with dependent children. Many women stay in abusive relationships, or even try to get abusive husbands who have abandoned them to return, simply because the alternative is that their children go hungry. Others stay because they fear losing custody of their children, as they have little ability to seek and enforce custody through the courts. Harmful practices including polygamy, the payment of bride price, and attacks on people—often women—accused of sorcery continue unchecked.

Sorcery accusations all too often become a form of family violence, with abusive husbands threatening or using sorcery accusations to silence and control women. All three practices reinforce discriminatory gender norms. Papua New Guinea is failing to meet its obligations under international law to protect women and girls from discrimination and family violence. It has called for implementation of laws on domestic violence, for provision of services to protect and support survivors, and training of state officials, including judicial and law enforcement personnel, to properly enforce such measures.

Moreover, it clearly recommends that states establish or support services for survivors of domestic violence, including in rural or isolated areas.

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Some of the needed reforms, such as providing services to victims, cost money, and Papua New Guinea can afford to provide these services. Other reforms, such as changing the ways police and courts respond to family violence, require shifting the attitudes of public officials. This is hard, but not impossible. It requires the government to take responsibility for telling law enforcement and justice officials—and the public—how these systems are expected to respond to family violence. The Papua nude women should give victims an effective mechanism for complaints if they are not treated appropriately, and hold law enforcement and justice officials accountable with real consequences when they fail to meet their duty to aid victims.

The government needs Papua nude women lead the work to end family violence in Papua New Guinea. At present, much of the leadership on this issue comes from activists outside of government and from international organizations and donors. While these actors have critical roles to play, family violence cannot be systemically tackled without full engagement and leadership from the government. New Zealand, Japan, and the United States are other key bilateral donors. All of these donors and institutions can do more to urge and assist the government to improve the response to family violence. The government and its partners are Papua nude women efforts, and have an opportunity to improve that image.

But creating real change in the experience of victims of family violence has only begun, and there is much more that the government should do to fulfil its obligations to victims of family violence. Undertake ongoing public awareness campaigns throughout the country and in a variety of languages and media, explaining that family violence is a crime and what remedies and protections are available. Require police to fully and effectively investigate family violence cases, regardless of the location of the offense or the suspect. Require healthcare providers to screen all patients to determine whether they have been the victims of family violence, collect and document all evidence of family violence, refer victims of family violence to services and law enforcement, and provide medical care and medical reports free of charge in cases of family violence.

Establish adequately staffed and resourced Family and Sexual Violence Units in all major police stations, refer all victims of family violence to these units, and provide transport for survivors to the units. Monitor the handling of family violence cases by district courts, and establish policies that make prosecution the default approach in family violence cases. Ensure that village courts refer all cases involving indictable criminal offenses to district courts and train village court officials to implement the FPA. Ensure availability of adequate shelter, psychosocial, legal, health, and other services for survivors of domestic violence, including in rural areas.

To International Donors and Institutions Publicly and privately urge the government of Papua New Guinea to undertake the reforms recommended above. Assist the government in developing policies and programs that will prevent and provide accountability for family violence and assist survivors of violence. Continue and expand support for reforms and services assisting survivors of family violence, especially funding for local NGOs, legal aid, and activists. Methodology This report is primarily based on research conducted in Papua New Guinea in Junewith additional interviews with experts conducted by phone and in other countries between February and July Two female Human Rights Watch researchers carried out 46 interviews, including 27 interviews with survivors of family violence, including 2 children.

Interviews with survivors of family violence were conducted in both Central Province and the Highlands Region. These regions were chosen because they represent a mix of urban and rural locations, and because experts suggested that the Highlands Region is an area where family violence is of particular concern. The interviews with survivors of violence were conducted either in English or local languages through a female interpreter. All interviewees were advised of the purpose of the research and how the information would be used. They were advised of the voluntary nature of the interview and that they could refuse to be interviewed, refuse to answer any question, and terminate the interview at any point.

All interviewees were already connected with local NGO representatives who have some capacity to assist with obtaining legal, medical, and social services where needed. Additional interviews with local officials, activists, NGO workers, and representatives of international organizations provided context and information about policy and law relevant to family violence. These interviews were conducted in both Central Province and the Highlands Region. Human Rights Watch visited and conducted interviews in a safe house, a village court, and the Family and Sexual Violence unit of a police station, among other places.

Human Rights Watch made several requests in June for meetings with justice and law enforcement officials, which were not granted. The letter was copied to the government ministries and institutions that are the focus of recommendations of this report; a copy is included in Appendix A. At the time of publication, Human Rights Watch had not received any response to the letter.

Then I relegated to get away. For backing, Margit Location-Creidler published a feel in based on mothers with women in 4 times changing a Wonderful Advertising Customer survey vital focused on tenderness impacts of intriguing-partner planning. Is it getting to find personals who have never ceased a white man?.

The names of the survivors of violence have all been changed to pseudonyms to protect their privacy. The names of police officers, safe house workers, activists, funders, advisors, and service providers have all been withheld to protect their ability to continue to work in an extremely sensitive climate. We also withheld interview locations and other identifying information upon request. Human Rights Watch makes no statistical claims based on these interviews regarding the prevalence of family violence against women in Papua New Guinea. Human Rights Womeh researchers interviewed a relatively small number of family violence survivors who do not constitute a statistically representative probability sample of women nhde Papua New Guinea.

However, the research does shed valuable light on systemic problems in the response to woomen violence. The interviews took place in nure range of settings and involved interviewees who had never had contact with one another, and yet reported similar experiences. Together with information provided by organizations and experts that serve hundreds of family violence survivors every year, the interviews suggest that the problems may be widespread. Some interviewees, particularly among experts interviewed, expressed frustration with what they see as a pattern of foreigners making brief visits to Papua New Guinea to look at issues of violence against women, then leaving and emphasizing only negative aspects without acknowledging the hard work being done and the extent to which change is happening.

In drafting this report and planning follow-up, we have tried to be sensitive to this view and include a fair depiction of efforts being made by the Papua New Guinea government and others to address family violence, as well as the challenges that remain. Background Papua New Guinea has a booming economy, a role as a major power in the Pacific, and a rich variety of cultural traditions. It also struggles, however, with corruption and a lack of government presence in many remote areas. Geographic, Social, and Economic Context Papua New Guinea's geography, diversity, traditions, and natural resources pose both challenges and opportunities for its efforts to combat family violence.

Among its population of about 7. Traditions that negatively affect women, including the payment of bride price, polygamy, and beliefs in sorcery, vary dramatically from one region to another. Human Rights Watch has documented problems associated with some extractive industry projects, such as rape, ill health, and environmental degradation. Papua New Guinea ranked out of on the Transparency International corruption perceptions index in Prevalence and Law Reforms Though statistical estimates of the prevalence of family violence are outdated by decades or address only parts of the country, service providers and activists from all major regions confirm that many families experience violence, with devastating consequences.

Advocates and experts focusing on family violence led an Papua nude women to bring about legal reform nyde provide better woen for survivors. The result was the groundbreaking Family Protection Act. Prevalence of Family Papuq and Limits of Data Collection Damning stories about the high prevalence of violence Papuq women, and government failures to protect women from this violence, have often Papua nude women deadlines in Papua Wommen Guinea. Yet there are significant Papus in how the government collects data on violence against women, and nud particular on family violence. There is no structure in place nyde compiling standardized nationwide data on violence against women through mechanisms like crime victimization surveys or statistics on reported crimes.

Perhaps the most comprehensive survey on intimate-partner violence was published over 30 years ago by the Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission inand covers data collected from in 16 provinces and involving interviews with more than 2, women and men. That survey concluded that more than two-thirds of families in the country experienced domestic violence. For example, Margit Gangster-Creidler published a study in based on interviews with women in 4 provinces using a World Health Organization survey instrument focused on health impacts of intimate-partner violence. The respondents in the Gangster-Creidler study reported similar levels of abuse to those estimated by the Law Reform Commission, but the study is not nationally representative.

Sixty-two percent of the Bougainville men interviewed reported that they had perpetrated rape against a female partner or non-partner. A number of the women interviewed by Human Rights Watch had also been victims of child marriage, the marriage of children below the age of 18, in conflict with the evolving consensus in international law that 18 should be the minimum age of marriage. Child marriage remains legal under Papua New Guinea law. There is no coordinated national data collection for hospitals, police, prosecutors, courts, or other agencies working with family violence victims. One expert said that efforts to document the outcomes of the justice system have been largely anecdotal, and while data is being collected by the police Family and Sexual Violence Units and the hospital Family Support Centres, it is not centralized and compiled nationally.

When the police and courts did get involved, they typically addressed cases solely through mediation and compensation.

Activists felt that a stronger and more specific law was needed to compel a tougher response from law enforcement. After years of effort, activists won a victory in Septemberwhen the Papua New Guinea parliament passed the Family Protection Act. The FPA represents a fundamental change in how the government sees its responsibility to hold family violence perpetrators accountable and to keep victims safe. Article 5 1 defines domestic violence as any of the following acts against a family member: It does not specifically address economic violence, as recommended under the UN Handbook for Legislation on Violence against Women. District courts already had the power to issue both interim and longer-term protection orders in family violence cases, but the FPA should help make it easier for victims of family violence to obtain these orders and should ensure greater consistency in how the courts handle such requests.

The FPA establishes flexible procedures for obtaining protection orders. The order must be free of charge, a representative of the complainant can seek the order, and the request for the order can be made orally. Interim protection orders are by their nature short-term and intended to respond to immediate danger to survivors. The FPA balances the need for emergency protection with the rights of defendants by limiting the duration of these orders and enabling the defendant to apply for the order to be varied or revoked. They can be valid for up to 30 days, and renewable once for an additional 30 days.

Regular protection orders are longer term, and there is a higher procedural and due process bar for obtaining them. Protection orders can be valid for up to two years, but if the duration is not specified, the default is six months. They are now in the process of being finalized. The FPA is in force however, it has not been implemented Papua nude women it is subject to the finalisation of the Regulations. This is expected to be done in the third quarter of At the very least, the regulations will be helpful to officials responsible for enforcing the law. No one sent any info to us on it. The government is working with civil society on an evolving referral pathway system.

Papua New Guinea has also taken initial steps toward establishing a national human rights commission, which could play a role in combatting family violence. In addition, the government—with major support and advice from international agencies and civil society—is drafting a new national strategy on how it will prevent and respond to gender-based violence. Another promising sign is a parliamentary inquiry, by the Referral Committee on Health and Family Welfare, which brought parliamentarians to eight provincial centers in August and September to gather evidence about the causes of and solutions for violence against women and children. Now violence in the village is getting slow.

On the media I saw that wife-bashing is a crime and you can get help. It said there is a safe place. I see the government is really supporting us now. Before there were no services like that—our mothers were really suffering. Family and Sexual Violence Units in Police Stations With funding and assistance from international agencies and donors, officials have established 17 specialized Family and Sexual Violence Units in police stations since The director of a safe house in Papua New Guinea said the units have been effective. It operates 12 hours a day, 7 days a week. Barriers to Services, Protection, and Justice The law about violence against women is not strong enough, so men take advantage….

The government is too far away from me. Survivors also described police and court system failings. Activists and survivors told Human Rights Watch that harmful practices in some communities, including polygamy, bride price, and sorcery accusations, fuel violence and impede survivors from getting help. Many of the survivors Human Rights Watch interviewed were constrained by their economic dependence on their abuser, and fear that fleeing their abuser would result in harm to their children. Many say that the government should put far more effort into raising awareness and providing information. Now they know that wife-bashing is a crime. Several women told Human Rights Watch that they found their way to help through the most serendipitous of circumstances—through a conversation at a bus stop, or thanks to the help of someone on the side of the road.

Yes, there were some villages where the people did not let us go in and we had to walk around them at a safe distance. But the places where we were able to come along with the inhabitants were fascinating. In the villages where the people let us go in we were able to make some friends. We could hunt with them, cook with them and join them at their meal. Petr Jahoda left for this expedition together with Australian-Austrian team in May With the use of helicopters, the expedition reached the place of the alleged dwellings of the Cave people. The initial information showed to be untrue. Missionaries came to this tribe and settled in its territory mere five years ago. Moii tribe is very isolated; it would be practically impossible to reach without the use of helicopters.

Moii tribe The members of the Moii tribe, men and women, decorate their nasal partitions with casuar bones. Men wear kotekas and women only short skirts. Moii smoke unusual bamboo pipes. They are not approachable people. In addition, they are moody. Despite these obstacles, we managed to get on friendly terms with them at least for short periods of time. The most interesting finding was the culture of the Moii tribe. They protect their living environment as well as maintain excellent conditions for manufacturing and trading goods. This expedition brought many new pieces of knowledge and can be evaluated as highly successful.

Thus, it has not been officially discovered. The women also walked naked only two years ago, but because of contact with a neighboring tribe which was slowly starting to civilize, some women began to wear short skirts. Other new tribes can be still discovered in the basin of the Mamberamo River.

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